Mental and behavioral disorders are one of the most complex medical problems affecting people all over the world. Depending on the manifested characteristics of mental disorders, they can drastically affect the lifestyle and quality of a person’s life or be practically invisible.
Mental disorders – represent a wide range of pathologies provoked by a change in the human psyche. These changes directly or indirectly affect the lifestyle of a person in society, his capacity for work, the ability to perform daily tasks and adequately perceive the events taking place around him.
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Signs and symptoms of mental disorders
The symptom complex of mental disorders in men and women directly depends on the type and group of a particular disorder. It is possible to determine the exact type of disorder only after a comprehensive examination by a psychiatrist.
Experts note that all mental disorders in women and men have a complex of basic symptoms, including:
- Acute or partial impairment of thinking, behavior, or mood;
- Distortion of the logical perception of reality, mental disorder of personality;
- The inconsistency of the events taking place with the expressed emotions: for example, when a tragedy occurs, the person demonstrates satisfaction or laughter;
- Minor or obvious deviations from generally accepted norms of behavior;
- Distinct psychological discomfort.
The above symptoms in neuropsychiatric disorders can manifest themselves both separately and in combination. Symptoms can vary significantly depending on the sex, age and individual characteristics of the patient’s body. As a rule, men have a pronounced aggressive behavior, and women have hysteria and sudden mood swings.
Causes of mental disorders
Mental and behavioral disorders can be caused by a wide range of external and internal factors. But in all cases, the brain becomes the object of the lesion.
Internal reasons include:
- Traumatic brain injury, benign and malignant brain tumors;
- Numerous infectious diseases that directly affect the brain or provoke its intoxication;
- Diabetes mellitus, stroke and other pathologies affecting organs and systems of the body – as a rule, occur in older people;
- Congenital anomalies and defects.
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External reasons include:
- Improper upbringing of a child, the presence of systematic acute conflicts with peers, domestic violence;
- Exposure to the body of a number of chemical compounds, including: poisoning with chemicals, poisons, drugs, alcohol, etc.;
- Systematic stressful situations, nervous strain.
Only a psychotherapist can determine the exact cause of the development of a chronic or acute mental disorder after a comprehensive diagnosis of the body.
Types of mental disorders
In accordance with the current international classifier ICD 10, there are several varieties. The most common are:
- Symptomatic and organic mental disorders;
- Mental retardation;
- Disorders associated with the use of psychoactive drugs;
- Disorders of mental development;
- Somatoform, neurotic and stress disorders;
- Emotional disorders in adults and children;
- A wide range of disorders associated with physiological pathologies of the body;
- Borderline mental disorders;
- Other mental disorders.
Each of the groups presented above has its own causes of occurrence and symptomatic features.
Features of mental disorders
Acute and chronic mental disorders can be paroxysmal, continuous and mixed. Features of forms of manifestation:
- The paroxysmal course of the disease is characterized by the presence of intervals of healthy thinking, after which a violation occurs. Intervals can vary in length and seizures vary in intensity.
- The continuous course is accompanied by a constant intensification and complication of symptoms;
- The mixed course is the most difficult form for diagnosis, characterized by the presence of mixed phases of the manifestation of the disease. These phases can be represented by affective and affective-delusional disorders.
In most cases, experts observe a number of individual characteristics of the course of the disease.
Help and treatment of mental disorders
Self-diagnosis and treatment, as a rule, does not lead to positive changes, but only exacerbates the situation. Therefore, it is necessary to apply for help only to specialized clinics, where professional psychiatrists and psychotherapists will be able to carry out the correct comprehensive diagnosis, determine the exact cause of the development of the problem, and also prescribe an adequate treatment regimen.
As a rule, mixed therapy is used for outpatient and inpatient treatment, which includes: drug treatment, physiotherapy and group sessions.