Pain syndrome

Causes of pain syndrome

Pain syndrome is a pathological condition accompanied by the appearance of acute painful sensations in various parts of the body. These sensations can be triggered by a wide range of factors: from mechanical shock and thermal effects, but a number of diseases of internal organs.

Pain occurs as a result of damage to one or a group of peripheral nerves, it can be of a different nature and intensity. To determine the exact cause of the onset of pain and further effective treatment of pain syndrome, it is necessary to undergo a comprehensive diagnosis from a specialized doctor.

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Causes of pain syndrome

Severe pain syndrome occurs as a result of mechanical injuries and diseases. It can also be triggered by a number of other factors, including: surgery, amputation of limbs, heart attack, hypothermia, bone fractures, sprains, gastrointestinal tract pathologies, malignant neoplasms, severe stress, intoxication.

There are obvious and hidden causes of severe and moderate pain syndrome. The obvious reasons include external factors that contributed to the infliction of mechanical damage: falls, impacts. All pathologies that are impossible or difficult to detect without a high-quality medical examination can be classified as hidden.

Types of pain syndromes

Given the high level of innervation of the human body, there are several types of pain syndromes, the names of which directly depend on the type of pain that occurs.

  • Chronic pain syndrome

It has a high distribution, accompanied by the appearance of constant or periodic pain in various parts of the body. It is based on neuropathic pain, which is an inadequate response of the body to an external or internal stimulus, including psychoemotional factors.

  • Acute pain syndrome

It is the reason for going to the doctor in 90% of cases. It is formed as a quick response of the body to an external or internal stimulus. A feature is fickle symptoms that appear one-time.

Types of pain syndrome by localization

For the convenience of classification, all pain syndromes are divided according to the place of manifestation. The main localizations include:

  • Muscle pain syndrome (Myofascial)

Muscle pain syndrome, accompanied by a sharp appearance of acute pain. As a rule, it does not have a pronounced localization due to the presence of muscle tissue in almost all parts of the human body.

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    • Vertebral pain syndrome

    It is a pain syndrome of the spine, characterized by the appearance of painful sensations in the spine or back. As a rule, it is caused by mechanical entrapment of the nerve roots of the spinal cord. It is also called pain syndrome in osteochondrosis, affects the lumbar and thoracic regions, as well as the lower extremities;

    • Gastrointestinal pain syndrome (Abdominal)

    It accompanies a wide range of pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, can cause a different nature and intensity of pain. One of the most common problems is irritable bowel syndrome with pain, which causes chronic discomfort in the patient.

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    Pain syndrome treatment

    In the vast majority of cases, treatment is carried out by conservative methods, which are based on the implementation of three main stages:

    • Pain relief – relief of acute or chronic pain in the affected area;
    • The main reason that provoked the development of the body’s reaction, for example, cervical pain syndrome or pain syndrome of the lumbar spine, is eliminated;
    • Restoration of the function of the affected area – medication, surgical and physiotherapy methods of treatment can be used.

    It should be taken into account that for each individual type of syndrome, special therapeutic methods are used that take into account the individual characteristics of the patient’s body.

    Diagnostics of pain syndromes

    Given the difficulty of determining the exact location due to wandering pain, both traditional and high-precision hardware methods should be used in the diagnosis process, including: echocardiography, myocardial biopsy, ECG, computed tomography and abdominal ultrasound. In some cases, a pregnancy test is done in women.

    Differential diagnosis plays an important role in determining an accurate diagnosis. For these purposes, X-ray examination, palpation, as well as a comprehensive examination by narrow-profile specialists can be used: gynecologists, urologists, traumatologists. For the operative removal of pain syndrome, drugs are used: anesthetics and analgesics.

    Doctor’s recommendations for pain syndromes

    The appearance of pain always indicates the effect of an external stimulus or internal pathology, which can be caused by a wide variety of factors. 

    Therefore, when it is detected, there is no need to wait until it passes by itself – often this only aggravates the situation, especially in cases where timely treatment of chronic pain syndrome provoked by serious illnesses has not been performed.

    For prevention, it is recommended: to lead a physically active lifestyle, observe a correct diet, avoid excessive physical exertion, undergo systematic medical examinations.

    Author </br> Brednev Ivan
    Brednev Ivan

    Psychiatrist, narcologist

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